TPACK Framework for Teachers
The TPACK framework (technological pedagogical content knowledge) was formulated by Mishra and Koehler (2006). They developed this framework based on Lee Shulman’s studies (1986). He was a philosopher and psychologist who dedicated himself to the field of education and teacher training.
Characteristics of the TPACK framework
The TPACK framework was designed so that teachers can effectively integrate ICT (information and communications technology) into their educational environment. It consists of three main skills:
- Knowledge about the content of the subject or discipline (what they teach).
- Pedagogical knowledge (how to teach the content).
- Technological knowledge (technological tools, resources, and applications).
Thus, the framework indicates that content knowledge, pedagogical knowledge, and technological knowledge shouldn’t work in isolation. In other words, they must be interrelated to generate new knowledge.
The following chart is a Venn diagram used to show the interaction of the three main types of knowledge that derive into four other forms of knowledge. Thus, we can identify the seven knowledges TPACK consists of:
Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK)
This refers to knowledge about how to teach a particular subject according to its specific content. In other words, it’s the knowledge of the teaching content, which allows the teacher to transform subjects to be able to teach them.
For that purpose, they must interpret them and discover how to teach them, as well as the resources and methodology. In addition, this knowledge implies knowing each student’s particularities and their prior knowledge.
Technological content knowledge (TCK)
It represents knowledge about the most appropriate technologies to teach specific content. Therefore, it refers to knowledge about concrete programs and applications to teach math, biology, or social studies.
Technological pedagogical content (TPK)
This knowledge has to do with the use of ICTs in the classroom. Also, the necessary conditions to use them correctly and the positive and negative aspects of their use.
Technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK)
This indicates the integration of all types of knowledge as well as the interaction between them. Thus, if the teacher masters TPACK, it means they know how to explain the subject they teach.
In addition, they know the best teaching methods for a particular subject. They also know their student’s situations and learning needs. Finally, they know how to effectively integrate technology to better teach content.
The TPACK framework for meaningful learning
At this time, the presence of technology in all areas of our lives is undeniable. Within the educational sphere and regarding the training of teachers, TPACK represents a good theoretical and practical framework of the knowledge and skills teachers must master.
Hand in hand with the knowledge of each student’s needs, the TPACK framework highlights the need for integrating educators’ knowledge. In other words, they must interrelate knowledge on the subject, as well as pedagogical knowledge and technological knowledge, to achieve effective teaching and meaningful learning.